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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Engineering is the discipline, art, and profession that applies scientific theory to design, develop, and analyze technological solutions. In the contemporary era it is generally considered to consist of the major basic branches of chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, and mechanical engineering.[1] There are numerous other engineering subdisciplines and interdisciplinary subjects that are derived from concentrations, combinations, or extensions of the major engineering branches.

Contents [hide]
1 Chemical Engineering
2 Civil engineering
3 Electrical engineering
4 Mechanical engineering
5 Systems engineering
6 Interdisciplinary
7 See also
8 External links
9 References
Chemical Engineering[edit]
Chemical Engineering is the application of physical and biological sciences to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.

Subdiscipline Scope Major specialties
Biomolecular engineering Focuses on the manufacturing of biomolecules.
Materials engineering Involves properties of matter (material) and its applications to engineering
Metallurgical engineering, studies metals and their applications
Ceramic engineering, the theory and processing of raw oxide material (e.g. alumina oxide), and advanced material that are polymorphic, polycrystalline, oxide, and non-oxide ceramics
Polymer engineering, studies polymer materials and their applications
Crystal engineering, the design and synthesis of molecular solid-state structures
Biomaterials, the study of matter relating to natural and living systems
Molecular engineering Focuses on the manufacturing of molecules.
Process engineering Focuses on the design, operation, control, and optimization of chemical processes
Petroleum refinery engineering, the design of processes related to the manufacture of refined products
Plastics engineering, the design of the production process of plastics products
Paper engineering, the design of the production process of paper products
Textile engineering, Textile engineering courses deal with the application of scientific and engineering principles to the design and control of all aspects of fiber, textile, and apparel processes, products, and machinery. These include natural and man-made materials, interaction of materials with machines, safety and health, energy conservation, and waste and pollution control. Additionally, students are given experience in plant design and layout, machine and wet process design and improvement, and designing and creating textile products. Throughout the textile engineering curriculum, students take classes from other engineering and disciplines including: mechanical, chemical, materials and industrial engineering.
Civil engineering[edit]
Civil engineering comprises the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and natural built environments.

Subdiscipline Scope Major specialties
Environmental engineering The application of engineering to the improvement and protection of the environment
Ecological engineering, the design, monitoring and construction of ecosystems
Fire protection engineering, the application of engineering to protect people and environments from fire and smoke
Sanitary engineering, the application of engineering methods to improve sanitation of human communities
Wastewater engineering Wastewater engineering is a type of engineering that comes from civil engineering and environmental engineering. A wastewater engineer determines the best way to transport or collect rainwater for human populations. Wastewater engineering also deals with the transportation and cleaning of blackwater, greywater, and irrigation water. Wastewater treatment and water reclamation are areas of concern in this field. Wastewater engineers map out topographical and geographical features of Earth to determine the best means of collection. They use sonar scanning in wells to determine volumes of water that can be used for human consumption. Using these types of data they are able to provide a means of collecting water. After collecting the water, it is their job to transport it to where it can be made available for use.
Municipal or urban engineering, civil engineering applied to municipal issues such as water and waste management, transportation networks, subdivisions, communications, hydrology, hydraulics, etc.
Geotechnical engineering Concerned with the behavior of geological materials at the site of a civil engineering project
Mining engineering, the exploration, extraction and processing of raw materials from the Earth
Foundation (engineering), the engineering of below ground foundations that support superstructures
Structural engineering The engineering of structures that support or resist structural loads
Earthquake engineering, the behaviour of structures subject to seismic loading
Wind engineering, the analysis of wind and its effects on the built environment
Architectural engineering, application of engineering principles to building design and construction
Ocean engineering, the design of offshore structures
Transport engineering The use of engineering to ensure safe and efficient transportation of people and goods
Traffic engineering, a branch of transportation engineering focusing on the infrastructure necessary for transportation
Highway engineering a branch of engineering that deals with major roadways and transportation systems involving automobiles. Highway engineering usually involves the construction and design of highways
Railway systems engineering
Water resources engineering Prediction, planning, development and management of water resources
Hydraulic engineering, concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water; intimately related to the design of pipelines, water supply network, drainage facilities (including bridges, dams, levees, channels, culverts, storm sewers), and canals.
River engineering is the process of planned human intervention in the course, characteristics, or flow of a river with the intention of producing some defined benefit—to manage the water resources, to protect against flooding, or to make passage along or across rivers easier.
Coastal engineering, the study of the processes ongoing at the shoreline and construction within the coastal zone, often directed at combating erosion of coasts or providing navigational access.
Groundwater engineering involves the analysis, monitoring and often modelling of groundwater source to better understand how much remains and if the water can be used for e.g. recharging reservoirs and irrigation.
Electrical engineering[edit]
Electrical engineering comprises the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.

Subdiscipline Scope Major specialties
Computer engineering The design and control of computing devices with the application of electrical systems.
Software engineering: the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering and computer science to software.
Hardware engineering: designing, developing, and testing various computer equipment. Can range from circuit boards and microprocessors to routers.
Network engineering: designing, deploying and maintaining computer networks, such as corporate networks or the Internet.
Electronic engineering The design of circuits that use the electromagnetic properties of electrical components such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors to achieve a particular functionality.
Control engineering, focuses on the modeling of dynamic systems and the design of controllers using electrical circuits, digital signal processors and microcontrollers
Telecommunications engineering
Optical engineering The design of instruments and systems that utilize the properties of electromagnetic radiation.
Power engineering The generation, transmission and distribution of electricity, and the design of devices such as transformers, electric generators, electric motors, high-voltage engineering, and power electronics.
Mechanical engineering[edit]
Mechanical engineering comprises the design, analysis and usage of heat and mechanical power for the operation of machines and mechanical systems.

Subdiscipline Scope Major specialties
Acoustical engineering Concerns the manipulation and control of vibration, especially vibration isolation and the reduction of unwanted sounds
Manufacturing engineering Concerns dealing with different manufacturing practices and the research and development of systems, processes, machines, tools and equipment.
Thermal engineering Concerns heating or cooling of processes, equipment, or enclosed environments
Vehicle engineering The design, manufacture and operation of the systems and equipment that propel and control vehicles
Automotive engineering, the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles, buses and trucks
Naval architecture, the design, construction, operation and support of marine vehicles and structures
Aerospace engineering, the application of engineering principles to aerospace systems such as aircraft and spacecraft
Power Plant engineering
Systems engineering[edit]
Systems engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how to design and manage complex engineering projects over their life cycles. Issues such as reliability, logistics, coordination of different teams (requirements management), evaluation measurements, and other disciplines become more difficult when dealing with large or complex projects. Systems engineering deals with work-processes, optimization methods, and risk management tools in such projects. It overlaps technical and human-centered disciplines such as control engineering, industrial engineering, organizational studies, and project management. Systems engineering ensures that all likely aspects of a project or system are considered, and integrated into a whole.

Interdisciplinary[edit]
Discipline Scope Major specialties
Aerospace engineering The application of engineering principles to aerospace systems such as aircraft, spacecraft, and ground control systems. Formerly known as aeronautical engineering, concerns the design, construction, and science of both air and space vehicles, primarily on the systems level. Further concerned with the science of force and physics that are particular only to performance in Earth’s atmosphere and the expanse of space. Often placed within Vehicle engineering
Aeronautics, the design and development of aircraft and air traffic control systems
Astronautics, the design and development of spacecraft with an emphasis on spacecraft systems, the design of ground control systems for spacecraft, and the design of orbital mechanics for spacecraft missions
Agricultural engineering The application of engineering principles to agricultural fields such as farm power and machinery, biological material process, bioenergy, farm structures, and agricultural natural resources
Aquaculture engineering, the study of cultured aquatic species and the production systems used in their culture.
Biological Engineering
Biomechanical engineering
Bioprocess engineering, the design and development of equipment and processes for the manufacturing of products from biological materials
Biotechnical engineering
Ecological engineering, the design, monitoring and construction of ecosystems
Energy engineering
Environmental engineering
Food engineering, concerns food processing, food machinery, packaging, ingredient manufacturing, instrumentation, and control.
Forest engineering
Health and Safety engineering
Natural Resources engineering
Machinery Systems engineering
Pharmaceutical engineering
Information & Electrical Systems Engineering
Applied engineering The field concerned with the application of management, design, and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement of manufacturing processes, and the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization. Applied engineering degreed programs typically include instruction in basic engineering principles, project management, industrial processes, systems integration and control, quality control, and statistics.[2]
Automation/control systems/mechatronics/robotics
Computer-aided drawing and design (CADD)
Construction
Electronics
General
Graphics
Nanotechnology
Biological engineering The application of engineering principles to the fields of biology and medicine.
Agricultural engineering
Biochemical engineering, the design and construction of unit processes that involve biological organisms or molecules
Biosystems engineering
Biomedical engineering, the application of engineering principles and techniques to the medical and biological sciences
Biotechnical engineering
Biomechanical engineering
Biomolecular engineering
Bioresource engineering
Bioprocess engineering
Genetic engineering, the design and development of techniques to directly manipulate an organism’s genes
Health and Safety engineering
Pharmaceutical engineering
Protein engineering, the development of useful or valuable proteins
Safety engineering
Systems Biology
Synthetic Biology
Tissue engineering
Building services engineering Building services engineering, technical building services, architectural engineering, or building engineering is the engineering of the internal environment and environmental impact of a building. It essentially brings buildings and structures to life.
Mechanical engineering,
HVAC: heating, ventilation and air conditioning
Refrigeration
Plumbing or public health (MEP) engineering: Water services, drainage and plumbing
Electrical engineering,
Artificial lighting and emergency lighting,
ICT: Communication lines, telephones and IT networks
Low voltage (LV) systems, containment, distribution, distribution boards and switchgear
Lightning protection
Security, CCTV, and alarm systems
Vertical transportation: escalators and lifts
Fire engineering, including fire detection and fire protection
Natural lighting design
Building facades engineering
Energy supply – gas, electricity and renewable sources
Energy engineering Energy engineering is a broad field of engineering dealing with energy efficiency, energy services, facility management, plant engineering, environmental compliance and alternative energy technologies. The domain of energy-engineering expertise combines selective subjects from the fields chemical, mechanical and electrical engineering. It is an interdisciplinary program which has relativity with electrical, mechanical and chemical engineering
Solar engineering, solar energy engineering includes designing and building services based on solar energy, solar energy product development, solar PV systems, Solar Product Manufacturing and Solar Systems Integration.
Wind engineering, Wind engineering analyzes effects of wind in the natural and the built environment and studies the possible damage, inconvenience or benefits which may result from wind. In the field of structural engineering it includes strong winds, which may cause discomfort, as well as extreme winds, such as in a tornado, hurricane or heavy storm, which may cause widespread destruction
Railway engineering Railway engineering is a multi-faceted engineering discipline dealing with the design, construction and operation of all types of railway systems. It encompasses a wide range of engineering disciplines, including civil engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering and production engineering. A great many other engineering sub-disciplines are also called upon.
Industrial engineering The design and analysis of logistical and resource systems.
Manufacturing engineering, the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing, to research and develop the tool, processes, machines and equipment, and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure.
Component engineering, the process of assuring the availability of suitable components required to manufacture a product.
Systems engineering, focuses on issues such as logistics, the coordination of different teams, automatic control of machinery for complex engineering projects
Construction engineering, the planning and management of construction projects
Safety engineering, assuring that a life-critical system behaves as needed even when pieces fail
Reliability engineering, optimising asset maintenance to minimise whole of life cost
Mechatronics engineering A hybrid of mechanical and electrical engineering, Commonly intended to examine the design of automation systems.
Robotics
Instrumentation engineering
Avionics, the design of electronics and systems on board an aircraft or spacecraft
Military engineering This is loosely defined as the art and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport and communications. This discipline of engineering is regarded as the oldest form of engineering and is also the precursor of the civil engineering discipline.
Combat Engineering
Strategic support
Ancillary support
Nanoengineering The practice of engineering on the nanoscopic scale
Molecular engineering
Materials science
Instrumentation engineering
Electronics
Nuclear engineering The application of nuclear processes to engineering
Medical Physics
Nuclear fuel
Radiation Protection
Petroleum engineering The application of engineering principles to drilling for and producing crude oil and natural gas
Reservoir engineering, the application of scientific principles to study the flow of fluids in underground reservoirs so as to obtain a high economic recovery.
Drilling engineering, the design and application of equipment and techniques to drill wells.
Production engineering, the design and application of equipment and techniques to bring well fluids to the surface and then separate out the various components.

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